In Africa Earth. CC photo by Flick user wwworks

Published on August 5th, 2008 | by Masimba Biriwasha

10

In Zimbabwe, Low Cost Technology Saves Poor Farmers

Drip KitMost Zimbabweans -  about 70 per cent of the population – live in rural areas and are engaged in smallholder agriculture. These smallholder farmers, particularly in the country’s low rainfall areas, are extremely food insecure and have little or no access to new technology.

They suffer from low incomes and a generally low standard of living, poor health and nutrition, poor housing and an inability to send children to school. Soil degradation and outdated farming methods have kept rural families trapped in poverty.

Inadequate and unreliable rainfall and the recurrent threat of drought also restrict the potential of rain-fed agriculture, on which the livelihoods of most smallholder farmers depend. In a word, access to water for irrigation is one of the most critical constraints that small farmers face.

Making matters worse, AIDS is undermining agricultural systems and affecting the nutritional situation and food security of rural families. As adults fall ill and die, families face declining productivity as well as loss of knowledge about indigenous farming methods and loss of assets.

The devastating consequences of the epidemic are plunging already poor rural communities further into destitution as their labour capacity weakens, incomes dwindle and assets become depleted, with the latter affecting mostly women and children who have few property rights.

According to a survey conducted by the Zimbabwe Farmers’ Union, agricultural output in communal areas has declined by nearly 50% among households affected by AIDS in relation to households not affected by AIDS. Maize production by smallholder farmers and commercial farms has declined by 61% because of illness and death from AIDS.

Women and girls are especially vulnerable. They face the greatest burden of work – given their traditional responsibilities for growing much of the food and caring for the sick and dying in addition to maintaining heavy workloads related to provisioning and feeding the household. In many hard-hit communities, girls are being withdrawn from school to help lighten the family load.

The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) describes household food security as “the capacity of households to procure a stable and sustainable basket of adequate food” (IFAD, 1996). It incorporates: (a) food availability; (b) equal access to food; (c) stability of food supplies; and, (e) quality of food. All aspects of this are affected by both the household-level impact of HIV/AIDS and the wider impacts of a generalised HIV/AIDS epidemic.

In households coping with HIV/AIDS, food consumption generally decreases. The household may lack food and the time and the means to grow and prepare some food. For the patient, malnutrition and HIV/AIDS can form a vicious cycle whereby under-nutrition increases the susceptibility to infections and consequently worsens the severity of the disease, which in turn results in a further deterioration of nutritional status.

The onset of AIDS, along with secondary diseases and death, might be delayed in individuals with good nutritional status.

Nutritional care and support may help to prevent the development of nutritional deficiencies, loss of weight and lean body mass, and maintain the patient’s strength, comfort, level of functioning and self-image.

In effect, the nutritional status of HIV/AIDS patients can also help improve the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy, when it does become widely available to poor rural people.

In such a context, labour-saving technologies that will adapt agriculture to new conditions generated by HIV/AIDS can help to compensate for the depletion of labour caused by sickness and death.

Drip-irrigation is a low pressure, low volume irrigation system suitable for vegetables, shrubs, flowers and trees, and can be helpful when water is scarce or expensive.

Already popular in countries such as Israel and India, drip-irrigation has been gaining attention because of its potential to increase yields and decrease water use, fertilizer, and labour requirements, if managed properly.

Drip irrigation (sometimes called trickle irrigation) works by applying water slowly and directly to the soil. It is the slow drop-by-drop, localised application of water at a grid above the soil surface. Water flows from a tank through a filter into lines then drips through emitters into the soil next to the plants. The high efficiency of drip irrigation results from two primary factors. The first is that the water soaks into the soil before it can evaporate or run-off. The second is that the water is only applied where it is needed (at the plant roots), rather than sprayed everywhere as in sprinkle or furrow irrigation systems.

Nutrients can be applied through the drip systems, thus reducing the use of fertilizers. Soil is maintained in a continuously moist condition. With a 100 square meter garden, equipped with low cost drip kit technology, a family of five can grow nutritious vegetables for consumption throughout the year.

This inexpensive kit offers a 50 per cent savings on water, over 80 per cent yields, and better quality vegetables and herbs. Because of its minimal labour requirements, the kit is well suited to serve HIV and AIDS affected households headed by orphans or their grandparents, where labour maybe in short supply.

In Zimbabwe’s rural areas, HNGs are widespread, yet they are largely neglected in spite of their potential to cushion disadvantaged and AIDS-affected families from food insecurity. Ordinarily, a HNG is cultivated close to home, thus eliminating the need for farmers to travel to distant fields.

HNGs can play a significant part in enhancing food security in several ways, most importantly through: 1) direct access to a diversity of nutritionally-rich foods, 2) increased purchasing power from savings on food bills and sales of garden products, 3) availability of food throughout the season and especially during seasonal lean periods, and 4) savings on water, time and labour.

Improving household gardening requires the optimal use of land and irrigation, as well as a dynamic integration of additional crops and crop varieties with specific value and uses. A well developed HNG has the potential, when access to land and water is not a major limitation, to supply most of the non-staple food that a family needs every day of the year, including roots and tuber, vegetables and fruits, legumes, herbs and spices.

Roots and tubers are rich in energy and legumes are important sources of protein, fat, iron and vitamins. Green leafy vegetables and yellow-or orange-colored fruits provide essential vitamins and minerals, particularly folate, and vitamins A, E and C. Vegetables and fruits are a vital component of a healthy diet and should be eaten as part of every meal, and are highly recommended for people living with AIDS

Smallholder farmers generally grow three cycles of crops per year. Typically, this includes at least one cycle of vegetable crops during the winter months, and an early maize or bean crop that can be harvested in December. The exact cropping cycles and systems will depend on regional climate, soils and input availability, in conjunction with the specific skills and nutritional needs of the household.

Farmers are encouraged to grow locally available indigenous crops that are highly nutritive but often neglected. The crops contain good nutrients and often require low labour-input. They represent a flexible source of food supply and can be easily preserved. Besides providing a source of income, they are adapted to cultural dynamics and local food habits.

They produce ample seeds without creating a dependence on external resources. Because the technology is new, smallholder farmers require technical support and training to help them tap into the full potential of the kit.

By strengthening the capacity to produce food at household level using low-cost technologies, negative impacts can be mitigated for AIDS-affected communities. Labour saving technologies and improved seed varieties can help to compensate for the depletion of labour caused by sickness and death, and assist farm-households to survive prolonged crisis, such as that caused by AIDS. Through agriculture and rural development, resilience against HIV can be built.

Drip irrigation technology offers much promise for landholders in the communal areas of Zimbabwe, where water application has traditionally involved the use of surface irrigation and “bucket watering”. Both methods are inefficient and waste a lot of water. Using the bucket involves hard work especially when the water is far away and scarce.

With drip irrigation, communal farmers, especially women, who are the primary carers and pillars of the community, can be able to maintain their gardens with ease, efficiently and at a low cost.

Also, drip technology will give quick returns on a small investment, and growing vegetables will provide both nutrition vegetables and year-round incomes.

As the old Chinese saying goes: “Give a man a fish; you have fed him for a day. Teach a man to fish; and you have fed him for a lifetime.”




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About the Author

Born '75 in the backyard of Zimbabwe in Africa, Chief K.Masimba Biriwasha is a children's writer, poet, playwright, social activitist and upcoming online publisher. His first self-published book, The Dream Of Stones, was awarded the Zimbabwe National Award for Outstanding Children's Book for 2004, but was a complete publishing business nightmare as sales refused to take off. His greatest dream is to win the Nobel Prize for Literature - someday. But for now, he is chilling in Chiang Mai, Thailand, finding the middle path to build a publishing house that will bring knowledge to poor and marginalized children in Africa. Take time to find his spirit in his words, and maybe together, we can make the dream to bring knowledge to the motherland come true.



  • chahbani

    there is a new irrigation technique which saves water 3 times more then the drip irrigation. if with the drip irrigation the production of one kilogram of food we need 100 liters of water, the use of this new technique allows the production of the same kilogram of food with only 35 liters of water. this patented new technique is based on buried diffusers for vegetables and for trees, it avoids water evaporation and has many other advantages:
    -reduction of plants deseases
    -reduction of herbicides and pesticides use,
    -reduction of irrigation frequency,
    -reduction of labor,
    -reduction of soil salinization when using salty water(4 grams per liter),
    -reduction of soluble fertilizer use,
    -could be used with low water pressure(0,1 bar.

    this new technique will be manufactured(from plastic) and available in the market during end 2009. if interested please mail to Mr. CHAHBANI the responsable of the Society which will manufactuer and sell this new technique. THE mail adress of Mr CHAHBANI is :
    Mr CHAHBANI can help the NGO’S to elaborate projects based on this new technique for small holders and farmers. the projects are submetted to international organisations and governemental institutions to get finance.

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  • http://www.jimatconsult.co.zw Canford Chiroro

    Dear Masimba,

    I agree with you entirely on the need to develop and strengthen adaptation mechanisms taking into context the twin impact of climate change induced drought and labour shortage due to HIV and AIDS. In as much as drip irrigation technology could be useful to save labour, and water, I have some reservations about this technology.

    1. Most smallholder farmers do not have access to clean water. With the type of water that would be required to run through the system, the pipes are likely to clog in most cases, and be thrown away as soon as possible, or only farmers with good water supply could benefit. There are a few of the latter, boreholes in most parts are broken down, and prior to programme rollout there would be a need to ascertain water availability.

    2. Drip irrigation has been targeted at households of people living with HIV and AIDS. The drum/bucket has been translated as a proxy for the presence of a PLWHA in that household, and as such strengthened stereotypes. In other instances, OVC targeting projects have implemented this technology, ignoring the fact that the children would have to walk 3km to fetch water on 20litre buckets to fill the tank, before they go to school.

    3. Technical support would be a prerequisite to effective rollout of this initiative. Farmers on their way to urban centres through decades have been inspired by sprinkler irrigation on former white farms, etc. Changing attitudes to say, ” Dont worry, these drops of water are enough to give you a crop” is somehow a challenge. There is a need for use of trials or such participatory systems to introduce such programmes.

    I very much liked your approach and concept. All the best, Masimba.

  • http://www.sofdi.com Brigitte Frey

    Unfortunately I only came across this site today. Would it still be possible to get the address of Mr Chabhani mentioned in the above letter. I am looking for irrigation systems for subsistance farmers. They learn already water management on their farms but some have their land near a stream and could benefit from irrigation systems of any kind. I also agree that clogging of the pipes is always a problem where farmers dont have access to clean water.

  • Betty Lawson

    I, like Brigitte Frey, have only just come across this website. I am interested in Mr Chabhani’s email address also. My people are in rural Zimbabwe and would find water saving irrigation most helpful. We feed many orphans in the village and would even be prepared to be used in any trials that you think necessary to introduce this system to the public. Please contace me if you are interested. I am part of a small charity called Tariro Project in UK and would love to hear from you.

  • chikachikachika aaauwwww…

    Thank you thank you… thank you very much… What do you think to do for the Zimbabwe people so they can school, eat, work (etc..)with a good condition…? How about we, the young generation, have a good behaviour, and then be the good government that not do a corruption (etc..), and help those people like Zimbabwe’s people…

  • Amanda

    I found this man’s work information. You can go here to find his contact info:

    Dr. Chahbani who has been working at Institute of Arid Regions in Medenine in southern Tunisia for the past 25 years, comes from an family of farmers from the island of Djerba .

  • http://Web chahbani

    this is my the 2 email adress of MR CHAHBANI Bellachheb inventor of Buried diffuser for underground irrigation and laureate of UNESCO Water Prize 2009. The Buried diffuser will be in sale beginning 2011. For more information send an email to the following email adresses: chahbani.bellachheb@ira.rnrt.tn/chahbani.bellachheb@yahoo.fr

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  • http://www.arw3thkreat.elld3m.com/vb/member.php?u=30265 Alison Demulling

    Thank you after sharing this acquaintanceship!

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